Table of Contents


    • Combined approach for development of cyber-physical systems based on IEC 61512 and IEC 61499 standards

      pg(s) 198-201

      The transition to CPS is one of the great challenges of the “Industry 4.0”. The core of cyber-physical systems is an effective control, associated with achievement of a high degree of adaptability, autonomy, functionality, reliability, security and usability. The paper presents a combined approach for development of cyber-physical systems based on the IEC-61512 and IEC-61499 standards represented as partial model of asset administration shell, according the reference architectural model RAMI4.0. The models allow the description of continuous production of finite quantities of materials (batches) from two distinct views – physical and control (cyber). The approach is enhanced in respect to the correctness and reliability achieved, by replacing the semi-formal models with using of Signal Interpreted Petri Nets supporting the verification processes

    • Lightweight framework for interconnecting virtual and real things via Node-RED

      pg(s) 202-205

      Key innovative technologies for I4.0 are Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), self-organizing machines (M2M), cloud computing, big data and Mixed Reality (MR). Microsoft HoloLens2 (HL2) is the new MR revolution for Industry 4.0. The proposed study addresses the potential of Node-RED IoT platform and HoloLens2 for interconnecting virtual and real things from the current scene in the MR window. The augmented holograms on scenes interface the physical object and link behaviours to them seamlessly and regardless of their heterogeneous technologies. A lightweight framework for interconnecting virtual and real things in HoloLens 2 via Node-RED is proposed. The framework uses open-source tools and standard protocols like IoT protocols, Microsoft WebSocket, MRTK for Unity, HL2 APIs and Node-RED nodes used to interact with Python or ROS processes. More detailed experimental analysis will be performed in the future in order to prove that this framework is enough practicable and stable.

    • Possibilities of using Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) in industrial communication.

      pg(s) 206-209

      Future of modern communication technologies of smart modern production systems is moving to wireless form of data transfer between devices. Thanks to use of smart devices that communicate within the network, we are talking about of interconnection of separate devices – Internet of Things (IoT). In connection with the implementation of standards Industry 4.0 in the manufacturing process together with IoT implementation into production process a new term is created – Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, the implementation of this form of wireless communication brings some problems, mainly in field of safety and stability of data transfers. This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of the use of IIOT in industrial communication and production management and describes relationships to concepts such as cyber-physical systems and Industry 4.0. Part of the article is a proposal of communication scheme suitable for the implementation on model of modular production system (MPS).

    • Teaching artificial intelligence in cyber-physical systems

      pg(s) 210-213

      A training discipline “Basics if the Artificial Intelligence”, taught in UCTM, Sofia is presented. The discipline is developed according to the requirements of ACM as well the methodises presented by Russel and Norvig in their seminal book “Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach, 3 ed.”. As a tool for illustration of the AI algorithms to be studied, each student is equipped with a typical cyberphysical system – individual training stand, which includes a simplified robot (addressed here as passive agent) constructed of sensors and actuators only) controlled by an AI algorithm, subject to development by the students and housed on a PC. An outline of the lections is

    • Energy efficient conversion system of a distributed solar photovoltaic station with power filtration function

      pg(s) 214-217

      The structural scheme of the distributed power supply system with the use of solar photovoltaic stations is presented. An algorithm for the conversion of a solar photovoltaic power plant conversion system in the Matlab software environment has been developed and implemented, which allows using a standard power topology to simultaneously implement two operating modes – renewable energy generation to the mains and mains current shape correction.


    • Off-grid hybrid PV configuration’s role to supply internet access points antenna in remote areas. Case study: “Ostren i vogël – trebisht” villages, Bulqiza district, Albania

      pg(s) 218-226

      As a result of the global pandemic situation COVID-19 many rural areas in Albania are suffering and will more especially the lack of internet services have engaged in development and cultivation of knowledge in the education sector, responsible in building a safer and more caring community. Even more Albania is indexed as a European country that still continue to experience the lowest rate userpenetration of internet especially in remotes areas. Despite its widespread use in urban areas, a very significant portion of the rural population still isn’t connected to the internet. Immigration of the population from rural toward more urbanized areas and lack of reliable electricity supply and infrastructure are the main problems that hinder investors to offer internet services in remote regions. The performance analysis of a solar PV power plant is important aspect as far as concern with technology and economic analysis. Due to seasonal variation standalone system can’t provide a continuous power supply. Therefore, in recent years PV energy systems that combine solar energy and other conventional conversion units are becoming promising more popular, efficient to fulfill load demand and representing a cost-effective technology.

    • Study of sound absorption and reflection coefficients and thermal conductivity of porous composite material obtained from household glass waste and burnt rice grains husks

      pg(s) 227-229

      The coefficients of sound absorption and reflection in the frequency range up to 2 kHz, here respectively 0.2 and 08, as well as the coefficient of thermal conductivity, here below 0.027, of a new porous composite material were studied. The material was obtained from ground household glass waste and rice grains husks burned at temperature from 4000C to 7000C. The results show that the material has good sound reflectivity and low thermal conductivity, which makes it suitable for the manufacture of modules for thermal and sound insulation.

    • Experimental investigation of a hybrid pv-t system under Albania’s climate conditions

      pg(s) 230-232

      Photovoltaic thermal system (PV-T) converts sunlight into electricity and heat simultaneously. The overall efficiency of these systems is higher than the efficiencies of PV panels and solar collectors together. In Albania energy production from photovoltaic systems has been promoted in the recent years. Albania’s Mediterranean climate conditions are very favourable for investment in renewable energy systems. In this study a stand-alone 280 W PV-T panel is considered with respect to thermal analysis of the system. The panel is installed at the terrace of the building University in Tirana, Albania. The aim of this work is to present the temperature profile of the panel, since there is a correlation between efficiency and temperature. In order to analyse the temperature distribution on the panel surface a series of experiments are carried out. Temperature variation vs. time for different water flow rate was performed. The inlet and outlet water temperature profile is drawn in this article.


    • The introduction of CP Factory production line, ideal technological platform for study and research in the field of automation

      pg(s) 233-234

      This year we have open a new laboratory of automation and robotics in the Department of Technical Studies at the College of Polytechnics in Jihlava. Our laboratory is equipped with a FESTO CP Factory production line in the biggest configuration in the middle Europe. This system which includes physical components and many virtual tools can be used in education, research and cooperation with industrial companies.

    • Implementing Industry 4.0 solution with legacy informational systems

      pg(s) 235-238

      This paper discusses a case of implementing Industry 4.0 solutions with existing legacy informational system in cement-producing factory. One of the main reasons the company wants to keep its existing ERP solution is because is too complex and cannot be ported to a contemporary computer architecture. The plant also needs to automate and modernize the process of loading their products, but the company management does not want to invest in modern computer servers and a new ERP system. That’s why they decided to implement a hybrid solution – a modern Industry 4.0 IoT devices with .NET client application using the existing legacy DEC Alpha as a server. Here, the required technologies used for developing that software solution are overviewed and all parts of the software solution are described. Finally, the benefits and effectiveness of such a hybrid software solution are shown.

    • Industry 4.0 a strategic adaption view; implementation model in an Albanian company

      pg(s) 239-242

      With time going by, industries have revolutionized, and continuous upgrade has taken place to strengthen its functionality of resources sharing and integration capabilities of functional units. The article aims to identify and suggest industrial models with the country’s potential in adapting Industry 4.0, and conceptual implementation in an Albanian company. The work clears the overall picture of Industry 4.0 in a country with modest adaptation potential, where technologies adapt to the country’s current needs. The study is based in an analysis of the most important indexes to understand the overall approach of adaptation. All the concepts and analysis are finalized with the Industry 4.0 principle and implementation in the Sideral company. The methods presented offer some good proposals for further
      implementation policies in industrial companies