Table of Contents


    • An exemplary approach to measure an innovation strategy with a questionnaire-based business survey in SMEs

      pg(s) 43-47

      The expanding globalization causes growing competition, especially in the context of Industry 4.0. One of the most important success factors for companies to managing the growing competition is to generate constant innovation. Companies show a high number and diversity of different business activities and follow different approaches to enable the constant generating of new innovations, but the problem is how to prove if the business activities were helpful to generate innovations in controlled and measurable way to avoid that the innovation activities were only time and resource consuming. The whole process which includes all activities for generating innovation for example the development of a basic idea to a new innovation with a successful business model is defined by the term innovation strategy. Especially for Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is the measurement of the effectiveness of innovation activities of high importance caused by limited resources This article presents one possible approach how an innovation strategy can be mensurable through the method of a questionnaire-based business survey for SMEs which enables companies to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovation strategy. The result of the article is the description and presentation of possible indicators and their units for measurement as a fundament for a questionnaire for a business survey which helps to identify the degree of an innovation and consequently of an innovation strategy.


    • Innovation management systems – reality and perspectives

      pg(s) 48-50

      Innovations require professional knowledge augmented by personal skills, creativity being the most frequently cited. It is a common misconception that standards limit creativity. The recent trends in management system standards prove that they can be used as best practices in order to improve organizational performance in various domains. The seven parts of CEN/TS 16555 are the precursor of the ISO 56000 series of standards for innovation management systems. The article provides a chronological review of these sta ndards, their relation to the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the way they can provide benefits for the organizations

    • Financial goals of the European Union – analysis of a target-driven budget concept from the perspective of the innovative SME sector

      pg(s) 51-56

      The budget of the European Union is a cornerstone factor in the financial existence of the continent, and a highly important factor in the global economy. Due to both the global Coronavirus pandemic, and the new formations of global trade in the Asia region, the entire world is focusing even more on the way the European Union will finalise its directives for investment for the next programme period between 2021 and 2027. Any impact on the budget will reflect upon programmes supporting Member State innovation.
      With the aid of five experts on the field of the European Union, economics, financial culture of Europe, and other relevant topics, a roundtable focus group was formed online to obtain a qualitative insight into the changes in the perspective of the Union towards 2021. The main idea of the authors is to wrap a larger research around parametrising the measurement of innovation in the Union, and making a simplified system for Hungarian SMEs for ease of understanding, and more accessible tender application process. Changes in the finer directives of the Union are necessary, to serve as a basis for selection among the several dozens of criteria the EU employs.

    • Innovations and corporate social responsibility in bulgarian SMEs – status and prospects

      pg(s) 57-59

      In today’s business environment, companies need to take responsibility for their actions and their impact on stakeholders. The company-society relationship must be reciprocal.In this report, we consider implementing innovations in SMEs doing business in Bulgaria, the performance of CSR in practice and whether there is an understanding of the relationship between them. The theory is illustrated by data from an empirical study of 300 companies by the report’s author.

    • Lean concept transformation of the packaging procedure in the process of final processing

      pg(s) 60-62

      In production where is a possibility that the surface protection process takes place at the same location as the production of semifinished products, but also at a remote location, internal transport, excessive processing, unnecessary stocks and movement of employees are often singled out as the main types of waste or losses in the packaging process. These wastes have economic and environmental consequences, so Lean transformation was imposed as a methodology for streamlining production flows in the packaging of finished products. The transformation involved a set of procedures that found activities that do not contribute to increased costs in the production process. This contributed to increasing the level of quality characteristics and reduced costs and time of realization of the production cycle. The results of this transformation in production flows are presented in diagrams and tables and serve to assess the economic efficiency and environmental compliance of the activities undertaken.


    • Effective determination of clomazone and oxyfluorfen in aqueous samples by differential pulse stripping voltammetry

      pg(s) 63-65

      Two novel types of electrochemical sensors were obtained by chemical deposition of Pt and MoO2 nanoparticles onto multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) and used for determination of frequently used pesticides clomazone and oxyfluorfen in aqueous media via differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). Clomazone was determined in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 in the concentration range 0.61-20.56 ng cm-3, with LOQ = 0.61 and LOD = 0.38 ng cm-3. Oxyfluorfen was determined with good reproducibility (RSD <2.4%) in the concentration range 2.5-34.5 ng cm-3, with r = 0.99 and a LOQ of 1.5 ng cm-3. Results were in the same range measured by HPLC/DAD, which was used as comparative method. Structural characterization of the dopped MWCNT performed by Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron (HR-TEM), and X-ray crystallography revealed a preserved MWCNT structure decorated with well dispersed species of the platinum and MoO2 nanoparticles

    • Innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced shotcrete for thin repairing overlays – long term mechanical and structural characteristics

      pg(s) 66-68

      Solvay Sodi JSC, Devnya, Bulgaria, is the biggest calcinated soda production plant in Europe. It is built in 1974 and it works in three-shift production regime up to present days. The exploitation environment is highly influenced by numerous factors, act ing corrosively on main reinforced concrete structures – active atmospheric processes (in continental type moderate climate), sea water born chlorideaerosols, as well chemical attack caused by carbon dioxide and nitric acid, presented in the air in form of evaporation. The most reinforced concrete structures need urgent remedial measures to restore the load-bearing capacity of its components.
      The “light soda” silos are reinforced concrete facilities (cylindrical shells) which repair has to be executed dur ing continuous production process. The options for repair of these structures and restoration of their load bearing ability by specially designed innovative high-tech hybrid reinforced sprayed concrete, containing capillary crystalline admixture, are discussed in the report.
      It is well known that two basic methods of shotcrete exist – “dry” and “wet” ones.
      The report discusses the main advantages of the specially designed innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced “wet” shotcrete for thin repairing overlays, compared to industrially made “dry” one. By purposeful using of standard and direct physical test methods the basic long -term mechanical and structural characteristics of two composites are presented and discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed “wet” method is based to real possibilities to involve in concrete mix design different chemical innovative admixtures – ultra high range water reducing (HRWRA), shrinkage compensating (ShCA), internal crystallization one, etc. The mechanical properties of “wet” one dramatically exceeded respective ones of the “dry” one. The mechanical test results fully correspond to the respective long -term structural characteristics, obtained by using of X-Ray, DTA, SEM and BET-methods.
      It could be concluded that the innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced “wet” shotcrete is preferable for high-performance thin repairing overlays
      for structural strengthening of damaged concrete structures.

    • Application of progressive technologies in the restoration of functional areas of products

      pg(s) 69-72

      The paper presents the results of research focused on the restoration of functional areas of products by the application of PTA technology. Hardfacing layers intended for the renovation of the surfaces of aluminum alloy injection molds were evaluated. The base material was medium alloy steel X38CrMoV5-1 (H11). Three types of powder additives were applied to form the functional layers: two types based on iron, designated HSS 23 and HSS 30, and one type based on nickel, designated DEW Nibasit 625 -P. The quality of the layers was evaluated using non-destructive and destructive tests. The surface integrity of the layers was assessed by visual and capillary tests. The microstructure of the materials and its hardness were evaluated. The tribological properties of the welds were determined by the pin-on-disc method.

    • Energy saving crystalline phosphating

      pg(s) 73-74

      The object of the research was a low-temperature phosphating solution, in which the nitrate accelerator was replaced with a more environmentally friendly hydroxylamine. Research on the process of the low-temperature crystalline phosphating has been carried out, which allows to obtain fine-crystalline phosphate layers weighing 5.0-7.5 g/m2 with an increased protective ability up to 200 seconds, measured by the drop method using Akimov’s reagent. At different temperatures, phosphate coatings of various thicknesses are formed, which can be used to form anti-corrosive layers for oiling with a specific gravity of 7.5 g/m2 and adhesion layers for painting with a specific gravity of up to 5.0 g/m2, which corresponds to the recommendations for phosphating for ensuring good physical and mechanical properties and increasing the corrosion resistance of paint and varnish coatings.

    • Efficiency of processing of recyclate from porous PVC

      pg(s) 75-77

      The paper presents research on the physical processing properties and morphology of recycled plastics. The scope of work includes conducting the processing of primary PVC and recycled PVC and testing Melt Flow Index and structural investigation of the morphology of materials. In the studies polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Alfavinyl GFM/4-31, was used in the study. This plastic has density of 1230 kg/m3 and hardness of 80 Sh° A. In the experiments, various types of chemical blowing agents were used: Expancel 950 MB80 manufactured by Akzo Nobel. Expancel is a mixture that contains 65 % microspheres in the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA). The decomposition products of the applied blowing agents mainly include carbon dioxide CO2, a small amount of water H2O and nitrogen N2. The technology for producing the recycled composition is based on the extrusion and compression technology of the compositions obtained. The study of selected physical properties was produced. The research on the structure of manufactured materials, melt flow index MFI, and macroscopic structure are presented.

    • Study of temperature changes in ceramic cavity walls of beehives

      pg(s) 78-82

      Subject of the present paper is the measurement of temperature changes in the ceramic cavity walls of Dadant Blatt beehives. Using a FLIR P640 infrared camera and two different heat sources, 80 thermogramsof ceramic cavity walls were obtained. The infrared images of the studied objects are divided into rectangular zones. The results of the study are presentedtabularly and graphically.

    • Current state of research in the field of measures regarding the prevention and combat of the freeze-thaw phenomenon of roads from the patent literature

      pg(s) 83-86

      Patents for inventions in the field of measures for preventing and combating the freeze-thaw phenomenon of roads address a topic related to the evolution of technology. Of particular importance is the stabilization of the substrate of the road transport route. An invention (J. Hornegger, N. Zanfir, M. Alupoaie, 2012) relates to a mixture used for the substrate of access roads and / or platforms. This invention relates to another invention (Y. Kadono, T. Nakazato, E. Miura, T. Kitamura, 1975) about a paved roadbed composed of a lower roadbed layer, an intermediate layer made of sulfur, an upper roadbed layer and a surface top layer. Another invention (D. Lee, K. Hong-joo, 2016) relates to a repairing and reinforcing ultrarapid hardening mortar composition, and to a method for repairing and reinforcing a road surface. Another invention (M. Radu, F. Radu, L. V. Pasăre, I. A. Buzuriu, P. Pârvu, C. G. Mudreţchi, C. Răcănel, A. Burlacu, V. Tiron, 2018) relates to a process for preparing ecological composite asphaltic mixtures to be used as road structures.