The paper is devoted to objectification and determination of the influence of hand-arm vibrations with selected machinery. We permanently meet with vibrations, but especially when performing work activities. When working with machinery, a person is constantly exposed to vibrations and they can very negatively affect the health of the person. The aim of the paper is to compare measured vibration values with the manual of the device and then to determine the maximum time exposure for work activities to avoid the employee being at risk of working with the device. Comparison of a final hand-arm vibration will be assessed by means of the hand-arm exposure calculator and software for a specific measuring device – vibration analyzer of the 4447 type. The proposed method – an extended risk matrix – is used to assess the risks of hand-arm vibration.
Trans Motauto World
Vol. 4 (2019), Issue 3
Table of Contents
TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY
The electromagnetic fuel injectors automotive are the gasoline injection systems main elements. The injectors perform the gasoline injection and its time of open condition, i.e injection duration determines the fuel quantity per working cycle . The injectors are activated by solenoid and inject the gasoline in the engine manifold at the system pressure . The gasoline injectors ensure precise fuel metering according to engine work state. The injectors are controlled by control signals, whose parameters are defined by the engine management system. The control devices are power transistors (drivers) in the electronic control unit (ECU). The injectors synchronizing and speed activating has a special significance and influence upon the increasing of the power and efficiency and the decreasing of the harmful emissions of the automotive engines. The synchronization of the electromagnetic gasoline injectors is connected by one hand of the injection according engine work order and by the other – with equal fuel injection duration and injection quantity. Meanwhile the injectors work at such conditions, which imposed constant compensation and adaptation activities by the ECU. This circumstance is connected with requirements of speed activating, which is measured by indicators, such as minimal electromagnetic activating force and minimal opening and closing time. This paper is considered the method of calculating the electromagnetic parameters of the automotive electromagnetic gasoline injectors for manifold gasoline injection.
The transmissions of HEVs or so-called hybrid transmissions (HT) are essentially power split transmissions, which almost always require planetary gears to split or sum up power. An essential prerequisite for reading and studying hybrid transmissions is the knowledge of planetary gear function and calculation. For example, the Toyota hybrid system can only be clarified using the principles of the planetary mechanism. In addition to Toyota’s decision, there are two modes of transmission (BMW, Daimler and GM) and many patent applications with similar ideas.
Technically speaking, these solutions are power split transmissions that turn into a hybrid system by adding an electric motor (EM), a generator (G) and an electric storage battery (SB). These transmissions perform the functions required for vehicles with an internal combustion engine, such as the HEV.
These functions are launching, torque and speed conversion, reverse gear, and rapid gear-shifts in ascending or descending order. In addition, the requirements for HT are realized with the help of electronic control. For parallel HEV, a conventional gearbox plus EM is used. The automatic transmissions used in the mixed HEVs are designed with planetary gearboxes and are also known as automatic HTs. This article discusses the features of planetary gearboxes used in HEVs transmissions.
A research into the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the motion of a quadrocopter with PID controlpg(s) 99-102
This report looks at Dryden’s atmospheric turbulence model. Applying the turbulent model to the motion of a quadrucopter with PID control. Analysis of the impact of atmospheric disturbances on a quadrocopter flight.
The presented report examines the isolated longitudinal movement of a mini unmanned air vechicle type flying wing. The overall dimensions and the mass characteristics are taked from the developed MUAV. These features are introduced into the software environment of the virtual aerodynamic tunnel. The resulting mathematical model is statically balanced in the isolated longitudinal movement and the openloop system has been stability examined. The received state matrix is introduced into the state space model of the isolation longitudinal movement and the system is tested for stability and controlability. A matrix of the compensator is synthesized, and its optimal coefficients are found by two methods.
In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors controlled using a proposed H∞ controller to obtain a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle suspensions in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions using passive elements such as springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution using a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung and sprung masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface disturbances. In addition, under certain circumstances using linear motors as actuators enables to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control (management) enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands concerning the external power source.
TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT
In the Czech Republic, the rail transport market has been liberalized for several years – in addition to public services, commercial services of individual rail carriers operate too. Public services in long-distance rail transport are ordered by the Czech Ministry of Transport. In December 2019, the 10-year contract between Czech Ministry of Transport and Czech Railways will end. The approaching end of this contract was connected with great interest of other rail carriers, which led to the fact, that the Czech Ministry of Transport demanded individual long-distance rail lines in the form of so called “market consultations”. Preparing of the operational performance of individual long-distance rail lines for the needs of market consultations was a great challenge on the field of transport-planning. As a result, from December 2019 there will operate 4 different rail carriers in ordered long-distance rail transport in The Czech Republic and this situation is unique in its form and unparalleled throughout the EU.
The statistics demonstrate that giving the qualified first aid at the scene before admission is is significantly less frequently than would be expected.
Medical care at the pre-hospital stage is of particular importance in cases of manifest circulatory and respiration disturbances, clinical death, bleeding, fractures, when a failure or delay to render assistance quickly leads to a significant deterioration of the body condition and even death.
The majority of the victims die at the pre-hospital stage, resulting in high importance of qualified first aid in the first moments after injury
The volume of trade between East and West of the Eurasian continent takes place on the numerous routes. However, the Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA) transport corridor is most known to the world community.
The TRACECA program projects involve the integrated development of sea, railway and road transport. As the consolidating measures, the central concern is the unification of transport legislation of the participating countries, the liberalization of regulation of shared services, the solution of common market and social problems in the area of the environment, security and international integration.
Time of delivery, as well as transportation costs through the Europe-Caucasus-Asia corridor depend upon the successful solution of these challenges.
Based on the status of the maritime country of Georgia, we studied the increasing risks of the pollution by the ballast water and wastewater volume increase in the sea caused by the volume of freight turnover of Poti and Kulevi sea ports. For this, we conducted research in two directions: on the sensitive areas of Kulevi and Poti pipeline terminals and ships in the port. We first examined ecological parameters: namely water relative temperature, water acidity (pH) and salinity (TDS) quantitative indicators as in the stationary, also in non-stationary conditions. The results of the laboratory survey of water samples indicate that the relative temperature (t1 / t2) of Poti (t1 / t2) 0,87 acidity (pH) 8.34, salinity (TDS) 15,60 Relative temperature of turbocharging (t1 / t2) 0,87, acidity (pH) 8.37, salinity (TDS) 15,12
Secondly, on the ships entered in the ports, we took as ballast and wastewater samples and analyzed in accordance with the legislation:
1. Ballast water analysis from tanker “Metin K” from Kulevi, shows that increased nitrogen +6 mg / l, oilseeds +0.7 mg / l, nitrates 1,3 mg / l and nitrites- 0,35 mg / l
2. Poti Port – N 5 Ventilation Examples of Weight Watchers Examples of Weighted Particles 4.0 mg / l, Ammonium 1,67 mg / l of ballast water analysis shows that the total amount of oil nitrogen is 0.6 mg / l, + 0.7 mg / L, nitrates 1,3 mg / ld nitrites – 0,35 mg / l.
As a result of these two studies, based on reliability and risk theory of Kulevi, the mean value of salinity (TDS) is equal to: 10,85, for Poti port, the mean value of salinity (TDS) is equal to 12,34.
In the theoretical and laboratory studies we have identified the risks of contamination of ports and waste water pollution.
VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY
This paper presents a design proposal for an electronic throttle control system intended for the experimental light hybridelectric vehicle. This vehicle was made in the scope of ongoing student project of developing and creating a light hybrid-electric vehicle as a platform for educational and research work. In the present case, ATV/quad-vehicle engine is used, where the throttle command of IC engine was originally realized using mechanical linkages and cable. In order to fully exploit hybrid drive potentials, control of both IC engine and electric hub motors had to be exerted by using single accelerator pedal. For this purpose, the original IC engine control system had to be replaced by an electric motor actuator that uses control signal from accelerator pedal used for electric motors control. The prototype of mechanism that converts rotation of electric motor actuator output shaft into linear displacement of the needle valve was also designed and produced applying 3D printing technique.
In this research we investigate the minor chemical elements contain in the particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions, generated from in – use light duty Diesel combustion engine vehicles. For this purpose we apply high resolution optical emission spectroscopy technique, for precise spectrochemical analysis of Diesel particulate matter (DPM). By means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analytical method we analyse PM from different on road Diesel engine vehicles. DPM were obtained from miscellaneous inuse Diesel engine passenger vehicles of diverse types and models from major brand car producers in Europe.
1D simulation-based development of a safety concept for the investigation of a high-pressure gas-diesel injector on a single-cylinder research enginepg(s) 128-131
1D simulation has significantly supported the process of developing a diesel ignited high-pressure gas direct injection combustion concept, thus facilitating promising investigations at the SCE. It has been applied to a variety of tasks such as designing the media supply system, pre-optimizing engine operating parameters and developing the safety concept discussed in this paper. Application depends on two simulation models in particular: one validated MCE model and one SCE model enhanced in the course of the concept design phase. Since the MCE model can reliably reproduce the behavior of a full engine with single-stage turbocharging, it played a critical role in determining the boundary conditions for both the 3D-CFD simulation and the simulations with the SCE model. The SCE model, on the other hand, includes all components relevant for the test bed and thus permits both a reliable design of the gas path and the development of a safety concept, which is of remarkable importance for high-pressure gas applications. With regard to the safety concept, this paper presents and discusses the difficulties in detecting injector malfunction and different detection strategies.
HCCI , SI HYDROARBONE SPECIATION GDIA qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon chemical species ranging from C5 – C11 was studded which is generated from a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC – MS). The GDI engine has been operated under different engine speeds and different engine modes (SI and HCCI modes). HCCI has the ability to operate on lean combustion which leads to the reduction in engine pumping losses, and fuel consumption However, HCCI mode has a high levels of unburnt HCs which leads to present heavier species such as Toluene, which is presented in higher concentrations under stoichiometric HCCI engine operation mode, while species such as , benzene, are mainly found in the engine exhaust during SI engine operation, Engine speeds has high impact on engine tail pipe emissions for both engine modes.. increasing engine speed leads to higher concentration in
Benzene species while toluene was decreased and presented in higher concentration at low engine speed for both engine modes.