• MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Theoretical and experimental study of the operational reliability of small-sized agricultural machinery operating in the mountainous conditions of Adjara

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 57-60

    Adjara, with its diverse natural conditions, relief and soil and climatic features, is one of the distinctive regions of Georgia, dominated by mountainous terrain, steep slopes and small areas. Accordingly, the complex mechanization of agricultural processes by mobile agricultural machinery is inappropriate and therefore small-sized agricultural machinery is used. This technique works in difficult soil-climatic and dynamic conditions, it is constantly affected by significant dynamic forces, high humidity, abrasive particles in the environment, mountainous terrain and others. All these factors cause intensive wear and decrease in the reliability of the working bodies of machines. It should be noted that single and complex indicators of the operational reliability of small-scale mechanization equipment operating in the mountainous conditions of Adjara have not been studied and their establishment will contribute to the rational organization of technical service of small-scale mechanization machines.
    The reliability indicators of motoblocks and motor cultivators, such as the probability of failure-free operation, time between failures, the failure rate parameter, the average resource, the coefficients of technical use and readiness, are considered, adequate probabilisticstatistical mathematical models are obtained, the least reliable nodes, types of failures are identified, and a set of measures is outlined to improve reliability

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Energy consumption and emissions of agricultural machinery for different arable land types

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 67 (2021), Issue 2, pg(s) 71-74

    In this research, a survey was conducted in the Republic of Croatia in order to determine energy consumption in agriculture. The survey included collecting data on agricultural machinery based on machine type, fuel used, type of business and arable land type. There were more than 9,000 participants in the survey, of which more than 6,000 family farms. Results are shown on a national level for four land types: arable land, meadows and pastures, olive plantations and vineyards, as well as for three groups of participants: enterprises, family farms, and eco-producers. The last was found to have the lowest energy consumption and emissions on most land types, except on arable land, where all three groups have similar results. Vineyards had the highest emissions per hectare, while meadows and pastures had the lowest.

  • TECHNOLOGICAL BASIS OF “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Impact of Industry 4.0 on agricultural industry

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 164-166

    Industry 4.0 represents the newest generation of industry development. Every day the various demands in industry are getting more and more demanding. The demand for shorter production and delivery time, more efficient and automated processes has led us to the Industry 4.0. It is necessary to include and integrate the latest developments based on digital technologies as well as the interoperability process across them. The goals is to enable companies to transmit information in real time in terms of performance and behaviour. Industry 4.0 can be applied to any branch of industry. Agricultural industry is no exception. As far as agricultural machinery is concerned, it is a very important part of agricultural industry. Agricultural machinery incorporates electronic controls and it is a part of digital age, enhancing their current performance. In addition to the electronics, using sensors and drones, supports the data collection of several agriculture key aspects, such as weather, animals and crops behaviour, geographical spatialization, etc. The main tasks are how to apply the right methods and methodologies in order to support a better supply chain decision-making process, how to automate the process and how can Industry 4.0 help a person, who is in agricultural industry, in order to make effective decisions based on objective data.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Theoretical and methodological features of soil water regime optimization in pedagogical technologies of agroengineers training for innovative project activity

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 157-162

    Innovative scientific-technical and pedagogical bases of studying in higher education institutions by future specialists in agroengineering of the theory and calculation fundamental questions of sprinkler nozzles and devices of machines for irrigation of agricultural crops are presented. Some constructive schemes of nozzles, namely, deflector, crack, etc. are analyzed. Graphs for determining the range of the jet and determining the rational shape of the nozzle are given. It is proved that all this can be effectively applied both in the educational process during the study of agricultural machinery and equipment by students and in research and production practice. Depending on the purpose, tasks, methods of technological processes of irrigation disintegration of a water jet on drops is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating the working bodies of sprinklers is presented, it can be used by agricultural engineers during their design activities. It is established that it is effective when students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, for example, during internships, identify shortcomings of technological processes, opportunities for improvement, level of technical support, and then, using theoretical knowledge, mastered methods of engineering calculations, design and construct working bodies of sprinklers. Formulas for determining the radius of the irrigation sector, the maximum angle of the rocker arm at which the nozzle is attached, the total travel time of the rocker arm in both directions, the speed of the liquid in the jet and more are given. The methodological features of functioning of various designs of nozzles of sprinklers are theoretically described. The results of scientific research presented in the article can be used as didactic material in lectures, during laboratory-practical classes, independent work of students, as well as graduate students and scientists at the stage of design and construction of reclamation machines. The main theoretical provisions are recommended to be included in the list of test tasks for assessing the readiness of agricultural engineering for innovative project activities. It is noted that the study of the basics of designing the working bodies of irrigation machines is one of the factors of a holistic conceptual system of protection of soils and water resources. Emphasis is placed on the fact that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of reclamation machines and the formation of special design competencies of agricultural engineers

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineer

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 120-125

    The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Development of innovational technologies of agricultural machines projecting and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agricultural engineer

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2, pg(s) 66-69

    The development of innovative technologies of designing agricultural machines and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agroengineer is presented. The course designing topics and stages of work implementation are highlighted, which states that during designing a review and analysis of existing structures of this type is performed, the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials with which the machine will work (soil, seeds, fertilizers, root crops, etc.) are determined, the agrotechnical requirements and technical requirements for the car are formed, the technological scheme of the design is substantiated and the principle of its work is described, the basic technological, kinematic, hydro or pneumatic mechanical parameters, the forces acting on the working bodies, traction resistance and power consumption are determined, calculations are made for the strength of the changed structural elements, the technical passport of the machine is drawn up, the technical and economic indicators are determined, the technological scheme is drawn up, the description is made and the formula of the invention is compiled according to the requirements of the patent documents. It is noted that the successful completion of the course work on agricultural machines involves interdisciplinary connections with other disciplines, for example, such as the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials, the basis of engineering methods for calculation of strength and rigidity, machine parts and design principles, agriculture, the basis intellectual property, the basis of scientific research, etc. An example of an approximate algorithm for calculating and designing an agricultural machine on the example of a grain seed drill is given. The factors emphasizing the quality of preparation of agroengineering specialists, development of capabilities for performing design functions are highlighted.

  • INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

    The research peculierities of parameters and choice of agricultural machines in pedagogical technologies for innovative project activity in training agroengineers

    Innovations, Vol. 7 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 151-154

    The structural-logical model of training of future specialists in agroengineering for innovative project activity has been developed on the basis of a systematic comprehensive study of the theoretical course of agricultural machines, the deepening of the students’ scientific work on the development of supporting and moving elements of machine-tractor units, including pneumatic tires. The samples of individual fragments from the algorithm and the method of calculation of wheels used in the educational process are provided and the general and professional competencies of the agroengineer are created, especially during the implementation of future specialists in agroindustrial production of higher education courses in the course of master’s and master’s studies. It is noted that the training of agroengineers for innovative project activities is carried out in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” and the standards of higher education of Ukraine. The influence of interdisciplinarity in the system of cross-cutting project preparation on the readiness for implementation of production practical tasks is investigated. It is confirmed that the support-run elements of aggregates in the conditions of complex terrain contributes to the development of erosion processes and negatively affect the soil fertility. Any tire better satisfies the condition of permissible wheel pressure on the soil if the air pressure in the tire is low. Improving the technological process of manufacturing tires for agricultural purposes allows them to ensure their quality, reliability and operational safety.

  • Protection of soils and water resources as an important factor in forming preparation to the project activity of future agroengineers in institutions of higher education

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 141-145

    Here are presented the results of scientific researches on the study of the bases of protection of soils and water resources by future agroengineering specialists in higher education institutions. In the educational process of agroengineering training, it is important to develop a motivational and cognitive criterion of preparing the future specialists for the project activity on the basis of fundamental  knowledge of the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials such as soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides, plants, shrubs, trees, as well as other additional products and agricultural waste, etc., for the purpose of carrying out the necessary environmental measures that will ensure the optimization of the parameters of technological processes, machines and structures which are being developed, constructed and projected. Innovative pedagogical technology of teaching is developed according to the method of gradually increasing the amount of educational material, which comes as a result from previously learned and mastered material. It is recommended that about 20% of the training program for agroengineering to be directed by obtaining general and special environmental competencies. The acquired special professional skills of agroengineers will ensure the development of project activity on the basis of preservation and multiplication of natural resources.

  • SCIENCE

    THEORY OF PROJECT PREPARATION OF AGROENGINEERS ON THE BASIS OF SCIENTIFIC WORK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 145-149

    The conducted scientific researches on the theory of project preparation of agroengineers are based on scientific research on agricultural engineering which were based on regulatory documents, including the Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education”, which states that the educational process is an intellectual, educational and scientific activity, which is being carried out in institutions of higher education through a system of scientific and methodological and pedagogical activities. The study of the influence of cross-cutting, scientifically substantiated sequencing and step-by-step pedagogical technology of training on the formation of readiness for future activities of future specialists in agroengineering was conducted. In a scientifically substantiated system of cross-cutting design of technical means of mechanization, the key stage is the implementation of a professionally relevant for agroengineer coursework on agricultural machines, which students perform at the 3rd year of study at the university. In these scientific studies, the readiness of a future specialist in agroengineering to design and research activities was assessed by motivational-value, cognitive-educational and activity-practical criteria.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    DETERMINATION OF THE LIQUIDITY VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY EQUIPMENT

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 239-241

    The structure of production in agriculture is changing with the change of priorities, both at EU and national level. On the one hand, this is due to interconnection in individual sub-branches, on the other, to the replacement of traditional technologies with new ones. In both cases, this requires the maintenance of more equipment than is necessary for production and the corresponding increase in the cost of production and the reduction of the profit from production. Significant lagging of the machine-tractor fleet renewal processes and increased loading of the used equipment imply intensive physical wear and obsolescence.

    Depending on the reasons for write-off, when determining the liquidation value of the machinery, account shall be taken of special features and the possibilities for further use of individual elements (parts, assemblies and aggregates). Several approaches are used to determine the liquidation value:

    – the whole machine is considered scrap. The approach is applicable to working machines and attachments to self-propelled agricultural machinery;

    – the whole machine is classified as scrap but is dismantled and divided according to the type of scrap (ferrous and non-ferrous metals). The approach is applicable to retractors and attachments to self-propelled agricultural machinery as well as stationary machinery for primary production processing;

    – the machine is rated as scrap of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and second-hand spare parts. The approach is only applicable to physically worn machines.

    In addition to that, an improved methodology for assessing the liquidation value of different groups of agricultural machinery for moral and physical extinction with and without residual resource elements is suggested.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    CLASSIFICATION OF INDICATORS FOR COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 221-224

    The efficiency of the machines depends on the completeness of the scope of the indicators and the factors with which they are linked.

    In choosing the best solutions, it is necessary to evaluate the system metrics, and the optimal option machine or set of machines to be chosen using optimization criteria.

    The indicators for the quality assessment of mechanized works should be divided into common types for all mechanized works and for separate groups of technological processes: soil treatment, sowing and planting, plant care, harvesting of crops.

    The system of indicators for the evaluation of agricultural machinery is expressed and evaluated with a large number of properties, indicators and characteristics of quality and reliability.

    In general, quality has four groups of properties: feasibility, social, bio-ecological and reliability.

  • TECHNOLOGIES

    IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, USING THE METHOD OF RESTORATION OF PARTS UNDER SUBMERGED ARC WELDING, AND ITS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 11 (2017), Issue 6, pg(s) 307-310

    The basic features of calculating the reliability of agricultural machinery are shown, in contrast to industries such as mechanical engineering, radio and television equipment, automation systems and etc., in which machines and apparatus operate in steady modes, while agricultural machines do in difficult soil and climatic and dynamic conditions.

    Еconomic aspect of reliability is substantiated and patterns of change in the efficiency of use of agricultural machinery in time are established, the economic parameters of reliability are determined. With the help of the theory of similarity and dimensions as well as the planning of multifactor experiments, through the original installation manufactured by us, the basic physical and mechanical properties of metal coatings are studied, obtained by welding under flux, there are relevant similarity criteria determined that characterize the process of restoration of worn parts and, after processing of experimental data an analytical view of criterion equation is formed and rational modes of the restoration of parts under submerged arc welding are set. Further, to optimize the process, the scheduling theory of extreme experiments has been used and as factors in the regression equation there have been chosen most significant similarity criteria. In methodics elaborated by us, it was obtained an adequate equation and by a method of steep ascent (movement along the gradient), there were determined optimal modes of recovery for metal coatings with high physical and mechanical properties (hardness, wear resistance).

    Under these regimes there were recovered worn ploughshares and their operational check showed an increase of resource as many as 1.4…1.5 times. For surfacing worn parts with complex configurations (ploughshare plows, cultivators paws), we have manufactured a special copier allowing to recover the items automatically, in a continuous mode. The feasibility study of the developed resource-saving innovative technology has shown that the restoration of 800 ploughshares provides an yearly economic effect of EURO 1,462.