Table of Contents


    • Evaluation of the structural change of the grain dryer to technical-economic indicators

      pg(s) 38-40

      Post-harvest grain treatment is today one of the key processes taking place in agriculture-oriented farms. Only cereals deprived of unwanted impurities, dirts and excess water can be optimally stored and later monetized at the highest possible price. It is the reduction of the water content in the grains that is the key factor in their preservation, as the biochemical and bacterial processes will be interrupted, thanks to which the grains can be stored for a long time.
      The paper deals with the technical characteristics of the grain dryer Chief CBS 14-6 in the process of drying corn grain in specific conditions in Slovakia, compares various energy sources such as natural gas and waste straw from agricultural production.

    • Investigation the process of soil seeding during cleaning of rootbull fruits by spiral type cleaner

      pg(s) 41-44

      Cleaning of root crop bodies from impurities during their digging from the soil is a complex and energy-consuming technological process. Therefore, the development of new types of cleaners of root crop pile from impurities, in particular spiral type cleaners, allowing to intensify this process and improve the quality of cleaning is a step to successfully overcome this problem. The paper presents a study of the technological process of sifting soil particles during the cleaning of the heap of root crops with a spiral-type cleaner. In particular, a calculated mathematical model was constructed, which reflects the movement along the spiral of the body cleaner (soil particles) of variable mass. Using the differential equation of volume change, the differential equation of mass change, i.e. the mass that is sifted through the coils of the spiral cleaner was compiled. Based on the theoretical study, it was found that many factors influence the intensity of soil sifting on the spiral separator – the initial mass of particles, the design dimensions of the cleaner, frictional properties of the surface, angular parameters of body placement on the spiral surface and angular velocity of the spiral roller rotation, and the intensity of these parameters has been studied. Using PC, graphical dependences of the intensity of soil sieving on the angle of rotation of the cleaning spiral when changing the angular velocity of the spiral were constructed.

    • A methodical approach to the evaluation of vibrations of passengers of electric bus 6K2 in the task of selecting a general layout and suspension

      pg(s) 45-49

      An improved methodological approach to assessing the vibration levels of passengers of a mobile car during its virtual tests on mathematical models in the design problem of choosing the parameters of the general layout and suspension of electric bus 6K2 is considered. When considering human vibrations in a machine, it is advisable to determine them taking into account the structure of the human body. Harmless vibration levels for different parts of the body are significantly different in amplitude and frequency. Vibration levels affecting a person be determined on the basis of two-mass and four-mass models of the human body, as recomended The International Organization for Standardization ISO. A computational experiment of parametric optimization of the suspension according to the proposed approach and criteria-rules allows you to find the required rational suspension parameters of the machine. The following considerations allow to carry out structural optimization of the layout of the passenger compartment of the electric bus, considering the effect of occupancy of the passenger compartment and schemes for random placement of passengers across the passenger compartment.

    • Method for forecasting engine indicators for its work on different fuels

      pg(s) 50-52

      Analysis of physicochemical and operational performance of petroleum and alternative motor fuels showed that their lower heat of combustion can differ significantly. However, the heat of combustion of fuel-air mixtures of these fuels differs slightly. Therefore, the assessment of energy and fuel-economic performance of the engine during its operation on different fuels is proposed to do the calculation method for the consumption and heat of combustion of fuel-air mixtures. According to the developed method, engine power and fuel consumption during engine operation on biodiesel, biomethane and petroleum diesel fuel were determined. To determine the heat of
      combustion of fuel-air mixtures, the lower heat of combustion of fuels was used. Fuel-air consumption was determined by engine displacement and crankshaft speed. The tests show that the highest power and lowest fuel consumption of the engine running on petroleum diesel fuel and slightly worse values of the engine running on biodiesel. The gas engine with spark ignition converted from diesel running on biomethane shows the lowest indicators.

    • Development of mathematical model of plane-parallel movement of trailer harvesting machine

      pg(s) 53-56

      This paper presents the basic principles of building a mathematical model of trailer harvesting, for which an example of a trailed combine harvester is considered. To develop this mathematical model, all the components are given, starting with the assembly of an equivalent scheme of plane-parallel movement of this harvesting unit, which consists of a wheeled aggregate tractor of classic layout and trailed behind the combine. And behind the combine is attached a cart for the harvest. Differential equations of relative motion of the collecting unit are compiled and solved on the basis of the Lagrange equation of the second kind.

    • Theoretical and experimental study of the operational reliability of small-sized agricultural machinery operating in the mountainous conditions of Adjara

      pg(s) 57-60

      Adjara, with its diverse natural conditions, relief and soil and climatic features, is one of the distinctive regions of Georgia, dominated by mountainous terrain, steep slopes and small areas. Accordingly, the complex mechanization of agricultural processes by mobile agricultural machinery is inappropriate and therefore small-sized agricultural machinery is used. This technique works in difficult soil-climatic and dynamic conditions, it is constantly affected by significant dynamic forces, high humidity, abrasive particles in the environment, mountainous terrain and others. All these factors cause intensive wear and decrease in the reliability of the working bodies of machines. It should be noted that single and complex indicators of the operational reliability of small-scale mechanization equipment operating in the mountainous conditions of Adjara have not been studied and their establishment will contribute to the rational organization of technical service of small-scale mechanization machines.
      The reliability indicators of motoblocks and motor cultivators, such as the probability of failure-free operation, time between failures, the failure rate parameter, the average resource, the coefficients of technical use and readiness, are considered, adequate probabilisticstatistical mathematical models are obtained, the least reliable nodes, types of failures are identified, and a set of measures is outlined to improve reliability

    • Determınatıon of the dust concentratıon of hazelnut threshıng machınes

      pg(s) 61-65

      This study was carried out to determine the dust concentration values formed in the environment during the use of hazelnut threshing machines, determine the effects on the employees, and reveal solution suggestions to reduce the dust concentration value. The most distinctive difference that distinguishes Turkish hazelnut varieties from other country varieties is that the fruit husks of Turkish varieties are long and tightly wrap the fruit, and threshing is required. During the threshing process, dust particles (fine soil, sand, husk and grass particles, Etc.) are dispersed intensively from the husk-blowing unit of the machine and the air outlet of the fan. A handheld particle measuring device with a particle size range of 0.3…5 μm was used to determine the dust concentration emitted from the machine to the atmosphere during the blending process. As a result of the measurements, dust concentrations of PM1 (1 μm), PM2.5 (2.5 μm), and PM5 (5 μm) were determined in μg/m3 air. The dust levels formed in the environment during the hazelnut threshing machines were compared by considering the dust concentration threshold limit of 4 mg/m3 air specified in the occupational health and safety legislation and regulations.

    • Ways to grow the efficiency of the harvesting and transport technological machine complex for grain crops

      pg(s) 66-70

      The article provides a rationale for an improved technological process for transporting grain from combine harvesters (GH) by a semitrailer-dump truck (STT), combined for field work with a tractor and a saddle trailer. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the minimum specific duration of harvesting and transport operations in the field is achieved when using a semi-trailer with a tractor to work with minimal time spent on the formation of transport units using a semi-automatic fifth wheel coupling.
      We offer a technical solution, which consists in the temporary redistribution of the grain mass in the back of the STT during its transportation in the field. At the same time, the rear wheels of the STT are partially unloaded and do not compact the soil, and the saddle trailer, equipped with wide-profile low-pressure tires, takes on additional load without significant soil compaction.
      The use of STTs operating by the semi-shuttle method in two parts: in the field and on the road section, increases the productivity of the harvesting and transport complex in 1.5 times.

    • Study of grinding corn stalks by a roller grinder with different knives positioning

      pg(s) 71-74

      The work is devoted to the study of the efficiency of the technological process of grinding corn stalks with a rollergrinder. Developed and manufactured roller-shredder, the design of which provides for the possibility of direct (left) and inverted at 1800 (right) installation of the cutting edge of the knives relative to their direction of rotation.
      It was noted that in the range of less than 50 mm the percentage of crushed stems in the cat with the right location of the knives was 20% higher than with the left layout of the knives. The total value of the percentage of crushed stem particles in the range of 0-100 mm for the right was 83.6%, for the left 81.9%. In the range of 101-150 mm the share of crushed stems in the roller with the left arrangement of knives was 11.0%, with the right 7.7%, in the range of 151-200 mm, respectively, 4.6% with the left, and 6.0% with the right, in the range over 201 mm, with the left 2.6%, with the right 3.1%.
      The average relative to the total weight percentage of crushed stem particles from the total weight of the fraction was for the range 0-50 mm – 20.3% for the right and 12.8% for the left, the range 51-100 mm – 23.8% for the right and 31.3 % for the left, range 101-150 – 14.8% for the right and 18.2% for the left, range 151-200 mm – 24.1% for the right and 16.8% for the left, in the range over 200 mm – 4 , 7% for the right and 20.9% for the left, respectively.

    • Theoretical investigation of the removal of halfrums from sugar beet root heads

      pg(s) 75-78

      Removal of the haulm from the heads of sugar beet to the roots during their harvesting (cutting the main mass) or separation of its residues (when finishing the heads) is a complex technological process associated with either a significant loss of sugar-bearing mass (low cut), or not complete removal of residues (high cut), which significantly degrades the quality of root crops. Therefore, ways to find a complete removal of haulm and its residues from the heads of root crops require research and development of such devices capable of performing this process qualitatively. However, first it is necessary to determine theoretically and experimentally the basic initial conditions under which high quality indicators will be achieved, and losses of sugar-bearing mass during cutting the haulm will be minimal, with the remaining haulm being as small as possible (or they will be absent at all). This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates and determines the loss of sugar mass and remnants of the bud on the heads of sugar beet roots during the separation of the bud and its remnants. It is established that in the interval of working heights of a cut which is equal to 20 … 60 mm deviation of theoretical calculations from experimental does not exceed on the average 1%.


    • Efficiency of irrigation in growing tomatoes in greenhouse conditions

      pg(s) 78-80

      Irrigation plays a key role in growing vegetable crops. The efficiency of irrigation is expressed in obtaining optimal yields in terms of quantity and quality. The use of water resources should be water and energy saving in order to reduce the costs of vegetable production and to be environmentally friendly. The main criteria for assessing the effectiveness of irrigation are the total and additional net incomes. In order to meet the set requirements for irrigation, the best effect is obtained by applying drip irrigation. When growing tomatoes, the value of the irrigation system is redeemed in the first year for areas over 5 dka, for areas below 5 dka it takes 2 years. Drip irrigation of tomatoes has shown that the frequency and size of irrigation rates affect the weight, diameter and length of the fruit, their number and hardness.

    • Hydrometric monitoring of rivers and canals-technological innovations

      pg(s) 81-82

      The protection of soils and waters is an extremely important issue for humanity. The main task to be done by the scientific staff is to monitor and control the water quantities leaving the water management facilities. Measurements of kinematic quantities can be used not only for quantitative assessment of runoff, but also for verification of theoretically derived hydraulic dependency in different forms of water movement. They are the basis for experimental determination of a number of theoretically introduced coefficients measurement of the hydraulic quantities determining them. Hydro metric measurement of non-pressure currents is a specific activity that has gained wide application around the world. When determining the water quantities, observations of the river outflow are made, also the measured parameters can be used for other engineering tasks in the construction of hydro technical facilities.[1]

    • Factors determining the quality of main and pre-sowing treatment of tomato growing soil

      pg(s) 83-85

      This is a review of the groups of factors influencing the quality of the main and pre-sowing tillage of the soil for growing tomatoes – soil-climatic, technological.
      The paper performs an analysis of the a priori information and from the conducted experimental researches the connection between the separate factors and the quality for performing the basic and pre-sowing treatment of the soil for growing tomatoes was established.