• CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Comparison of tillage technologies in relation to changes in soil properties using soil biostimulation

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 67 (2023), Issue 3, pg(s) 102-104

    Climate change is causing problems for farmers almost throughout Europe, particularly in the area of soil drought. The current soil situation in Slovakia and Europe is not favourable. Declining cattle numbers are causing a shortage of organic fertiliser, soil degradation is occurring, as is soil compaction with high weight agricultural machinery causing changes in the bulk density of the soil and its penetrometric resistance. The aim of this paper is to point out the possibilities of prevention against soil degradation. In this paper we compare the effect of conventional technology and soil conservation technology in combination with soil biostimulation on the change of soil condition.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Advanced Review on Soil Microbiology and Fertility of Soils

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 67 (2023), Issue 1, pg(s) 27-31

    Soil microbiology is highly linked with the microorganisms and their particular activities regarding the growth of plants and yield while taking a part of the nitrogen cycle which is an important component in the providing of nutrients for the growth of plants. In the case of atmospheric nitrogen fixation, organic matter decomposition and releasing of some bio-chemical enzymes are the important factors regarding the growth of plants and roots. In generally, the microorganisms are categorized into a few of specific groups while considering their biological features and behaviors such as bacteria, viruses, fungus and algae. When considering the main role of microorganisms can do in the soil is the increasing of soil fertility while improving the soil structure, increasing the plant tolerance and providing of a self protection against the diseases of plants. According to the agricultural practices, the great diversity of microorganisms plays a few of important roles in the maintaining of the equilibrium of the soil and plant including the top soil which provides habitations for a large number of microbial communities.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Theoretical and methodological features of soil water regime optimization in pedagogical technologies of agroengineers training for innovative project activity

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 66 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 157-162

    Innovative scientific-technical and pedagogical bases of studying in higher education institutions by future specialists in agroengineering of the theory and calculation fundamental questions of sprinkler nozzles and devices of machines for irrigation of agricultural crops are presented. Some constructive schemes of nozzles, namely, deflector, crack, etc. are analyzed. Graphs for determining the range of the jet and determining the rational shape of the nozzle are given. It is proved that all this can be effectively applied both in the educational process during the study of agricultural machinery and equipment by students and in research and production practice. Depending on the purpose, tasks, methods of technological processes of irrigation disintegration of a water jet on drops is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating the working bodies of sprinklers is presented, it can be used by agricultural engineers during their design activities. It is established that it is effective when students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, for example, during internships, identify shortcomings of technological processes, opportunities for improvement, level of technical support, and then, using theoretical knowledge, mastered methods of engineering calculations, design and construct working bodies of sprinklers. Formulas for determining the radius of the irrigation sector, the maximum angle of the rocker arm at which the nozzle is attached, the total travel time of the rocker arm in both directions, the speed of the liquid in the jet and more are given. The methodological features of functioning of various designs of nozzles of sprinklers are theoretically described. The results of scientific research presented in the article can be used as didactic material in lectures, during laboratory-practical classes, independent work of students, as well as graduate students and scientists at the stage of design and construction of reclamation machines. The main theoretical provisions are recommended to be included in the list of test tasks for assessing the readiness of agricultural engineering for innovative project activities. It is noted that the study of the basics of designing the working bodies of irrigation machines is one of the factors of a holistic conceptual system of protection of soils and water resources. Emphasis is placed on the fact that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of reclamation machines and the formation of special design competencies of agricultural engineers

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    Soil moisture and soil density variation during plant growing season by implementation of mineral and organic fertilization

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 126-128

    Soil water retention and soil compaction are very important factors in the plant production and environment protection. The field investigations of the variation of soil moisture and soil density of Luvisol loamy sand in arable layer and in hard pen during sugar beet growing season in conventional tillage with implementation of mineral and organic fertilization were realised. In the growing season the soil moisture extremely fluctuates in the range from 4 to 18%. At the same time, it causes fluctuations of soil density, which totally decreases in time. Starting from June one can observe that the natural changes of the soil moisture cause contrary changes of soil density. Mostly, the soil moisture and soil density variation during growing season are similar in ruts and at the field besides the ruts. Generally, the organic fertilization increases the soil retention to about 4 % in arable layer and profitable enhance the loosened action of water.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineer

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 120-125

    The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.

  • Protection of soils and water resources as an important factor in forming preparation to the project activity of future agroengineers in institutions of higher education

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 141-145

    Here are presented the results of scientific researches on the study of the bases of protection of soils and water resources by future agroengineering specialists in higher education institutions. In the educational process of agroengineering training, it is important to develop a motivational and cognitive criterion of preparing the future specialists for the project activity on the basis of fundamental  knowledge of the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials such as soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides, plants, shrubs, trees, as well as other additional products and agricultural waste, etc., for the purpose of carrying out the necessary environmental measures that will ensure the optimization of the parameters of technological processes, machines and structures which are being developed, constructed and projected. Innovative pedagogical technology of teaching is developed according to the method of gradually increasing the amount of educational material, which comes as a result from previously learned and mastered material. It is recommended that about 20% of the training program for agroengineering to be directed by obtaining general and special environmental competencies. The acquired special professional skills of agroengineers will ensure the development of project activity on the basis of preservation and multiplication of natural resources.

  • SCIENCE

    STUDY OF THE TILLAGE AND PLANTING INFLUENCE ON THE MAIZE YIELDS

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 2 (2017), Issue 2, pg(s) 58-61

    Sustainability of agricultural production results in reducing the negative trends caused by both climate change and by incorrectly applied technologies for production, which aims to preserve the resource base and maintaining environmental quality. Soils are conditionally renewable natural resource but practically reconstruct in a very long time. Therefore, in order to preserve them relate to nonrenewable natural resources. At its core, soil, where they are intended for agricultural use are processed to meet the needs of people and thus change their properties. By applying appropriate ways of tillage and use the potential of plant residues, it is possible to control physical properties. There is a misconception and myth that getting high yields in agriculture can be maintained only with the addition of fertilizer and / or water. High investments made at the entrance of the agricultural production can easily be pointless, if the physical properties of soil are suboptimal or even below the critical level.The physical properties of the soil, it is essential for processing and has its mechanical structure. It closely depend on a number of other properties such as bulk density, ability to retain water, porosity, adhesion, resistance, etc., Which play an important role in the processing and to obtain sustainable yields.

  • INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

    RESEARCH OF THE NEW GENERATION CНISEL PLOW

    Innovations, Vol. 5 (2017), Issue 2, pg(s) 103-106

    The article presents the chisel plow of the new generation developed on the basis of the systematic approach and adaptability of technological impacts from soil-climatic and agro landscape conditions. The principle of the use of the alternating movement of working elements for the destruction of the layer in the so-called lines of the least connections was built into the basis of the chisel plow construction. The chisel plow is multipurpose: it performs the present technological process of soil processing of fields on different depth and spaces between rows of perennial plants on the depth which is differentially changed distancing from the bole due to the architectonics of the root system disposition. Working elements of the chisel plow contain the fastened clutches on hinges, the angle of the mounting is determined by the action of soil resistance forces but the destruction of the layer is executed by differently directed deformations. Researches showed that the chisel plow qualitatively fulfills the present technological process and corresponds to agro-technical demands. The amount of agronomically valuable aggregates increases in the arable layer under the processing of soil by the chisel plow. The chisel plow is fairly aggregated with the Т-150K according to energetic indexes. The decrease in traction resistance (by 12.27%) and specific energy consumption (1.14%) when using the working elements with self-centered clutches have been observed. There was set the reasonability of the application of the type without clutches at the deeper tillage, and it is necessary to use the chisel plow with self-centered clutches under the soil treatment on small and medium depth. To treat soil in arid conditions there was developed the construction of the combined chisel plow presenting the combination of the chisel plow with a roller. The comparative analysis of technological process indexes testifies increasing the quality under function of the chisel plow with a roller and unimportant increase of power inputs in normal ranges. According to the acceptance tests on the SouthCaucasian MIS chisel plow is recommended to the application in agricultural production.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF STUDIES AND RESEARCH OF CONSERVING SOILS AND WATER IN TECHNOLOGIES OF AGROENGINEERS TRAINING

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 5, pg(s) 207-210

    The basis of study of soils and water resources by future specialists in agroengineering in higher educational institutions is presented. Innovative pedagogical technology is developed according to the method of gradually increasing educational load, which follows from previously learned and mastered material. The acquisition of professional competencies for agroengineering will ensure the development of project activities on the basis of preservation and even multiplication of natural resources. In the training process of agroengineering development, it is important to develop the mathematical apparatus for the necessary calculations, which will ensure optimization of the parameters of technological processes and structures.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    INVESTIGATION OF MACHINES FOR SOIL PROCESSING AND SOWING BIOENERGETIC CROPS UNDER CONDITIONS OF CHANGEABLE RELIEF

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 2, pg(s) 82-86

    Problematic issues of tillage on slopes are distinguished and methodological aspects of theoretical analysis and experimental researches and production testing of tillage and sowing machinery under the given conditions, in recognition of preservation of soil fertility, are represented. It is considered that sloping lands can be terraced to reduce water erosion of soil, but it is not always expedient to apply this anti-erosion measure, especially on slopes with low steepness, where the usage of special tools for soil-protective nonmoldboard tillage is preferable. The theoretical background to make calculation of sowing machines that are engineered for the system of precise/specific/accurate farming in fields with a complex terrain is presented.

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Research of the new generation chisel plow

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 1, pg(s) 33-36

    The article presents the chisel plow of the new generation developed on the basis of the systematic approach and adaptability of technological impacts from soil-climatic and agro landscape conditions. The principle of the use of the alternating movement of working elements for the destruction of the layer in the so-called lines of the least connections was built into the basis of the chisel plow construction. The chisel plow is multipurpose: it performs the present technological process of soil processing of fields on different depth and spaces between rows of perennial plants on the depth which is differentially changed distancing from the bole due to the architectonics of the root system disposition. Working elements of the chisel plow contain the fastened clutches on hinges, the angle of the mounting is determined by the action of soil resistance forces but the destruction of the layer is executed by differently directed deformations. Researches showed that the chisel plow qualitatively fulfills the present technological process and corresponds to agro-technical demands. The amount of agronomically valuable aggregates increases in the arable layer under the processing of soil by the chisel plow. The chisel plow is fairly aggregated with the Т-150K according to energetic indexes. The decrease in traction resistance (by 12.27%) and specific energy consumption (1.14%) when using the working elements with self-centered clutches have been observed. There was set the reasonability of the application of the type without clutches at the deeper tillage, and it is necessary to use the chisel plow with self-centered clutches under the soil treatment on small and medium depth. To treat soil in arid conditions there was developed the construction of the combined chisel plow presenting the combination of the chisel plow with a roller. The comparative analysis of technological process indexes testifies increasing the quality under function of the chisel plow with a roller and unimportant increase of power inputs in normal ranges. According to the acceptance tests on the South-Caucasian MIS chisel plow is recommended to the application in agricultural production.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    DRIVERS AND CONSTRAINTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION BY POLISH FARMERS OF MEASURES TO REMEDIATE NUTRIENT LEACHING TO WATERS

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 4, pg(s) 22-25

    Against the background of ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, this study examined drivers and constraints for implementation by farmers of measures to minimise nutrient losses to waters. The research was conducted in two Polish regions (Mazovia and Pomerania) and included 28 agricultural farms. Four remediation tools were tested and the results evaluated. The study clearly demonstrates the need for greater awareness among farmers of nutrient flows and management on their farms, especially in a changing world requiring them to be better prepared to show flexibility in their production.