The research in the field of logistic processes in the printing house will be focused on defined the improvement in the context of the „Industry 4.0” concept. In the industry, the growing complexity of production makes logistic processes more and more important. In every printing house industry certain processes which are implemented in the sphere of production can be systematized. The study will focus on the importance and goals of logistics processes; distribution; logistic chain; analysis of the efficiency of processes; selection of suppliers and organization of deliveries, creating networks of cooperators in the enterprise; computer support of processes at production; designing logistic systems. The study will present logistic processes in the printing house based on the „Industry 4.0” concept. “Industry 4.0” is often identified in the first place with the digital transformation of production systems – their digitalization. The production sphere is also moving towards increasing digitalization, first and foremost by using wider applications: data management (Big Data), and above all effective acquisition (via various types of sensors) and analysis of data; automation, e.g. the combination of traditional manufacturing methods with artificial intelligence, allowing to reduce errors and costs; communication using broadband links to connect the whole value chain; digital communication with clients. The conclusion of the research will be providing improvements of processes in chosen printing industry analyzing the solutions of the “Industry 4.0” concept.
Industrial development has brought about qualitative changes in the very foundation of innovation and automation. The distinctive features of enterprises with such a type of production are becoming increasingly blurred by the growing tendency for global industrial development. They become heavily dependent on the pace of development of automation, industrial technologies, communications and ever more determined by the factors that most affect and shape the trends of that development. It is therefore of utmost importance to carefully define the distinctive features of modern logistics processes that form the foundation of the respective digital development policies, which is also the primary objective of the proposed paper. These policies are undoubtedly enforced by the very evolution of technology and are likely to define the new directions of cyber development.
THEORETICAL PROBLEMS IN INNOVATIONS
Technological advancement driven by innovation, fundamentally new industrial technologies and artificial intelligence, will naturally exert greater pressure not only on the growth of production but also on its structural properties which are expected to undergo significant changes. Moreover, the improvement of technological, auxiliary and information activities will invariably be regarded as a crucial factor in the development of modern production. Thus, with the structural transformation having been effected, the new communication and information achievements are more likely to reinforce the relationship of production with its external logistics components. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the production of the future will be constructed as a complete whole comprising the respective technical, technological and information processes along with the functionally integrated production components, including those of the logistics system. The purpose of the present paper is to explore the possibilities for designing automated logistics information systems and to propose an innovative approach incorporating not only the specific in-house (intra-company) logistics but also considering its interdependent relationship with the other logistics processes that have been excluded from the company’s core business activities.
TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT
Choosing the right warehouse location is very important question which should be considered with great care, because it has a direct influence on the operating cost. For solving this problem many methods are on disposal. According to the way of determination of new warehouse location these methods can be divided in two groups’: qualitative methods and quantitative methods. Quantitative methods are often used in practice from the reason greater objectivity and possibility to analyse obtained results. Most often used methods are: gravity method, load distance method, Weber problem and many others. For calculating of distance in the load distance method two approaches are in use rectilinear distance and Euclidean distance. Neither one of these two approaches credibly describes transport routes because they not taken into consideration any physical obstacles that might occur between potential warehouse locations. With the goal to determine the influence of distance calculation on the result of the load distance method, choice analysis of optimal location of warehouse for retail stores, shops in the urban area was performed and presented.
Relationships that are the subject of logistics in general, in principle have still not been resolved from a juridical standpoint. Even individual types of logistics do not have holistic, integrated legal regulation. However, even the legal regulation of the transport logistics is a fragmented set of norms regulating individual types of transportation, but not a transport logistics in general.
It is hard to imagine that in principle it is possible to develop a set of international legal standards, which would constitute a coherent legal system ensuring the functioning of macro-logistics systems, i.e. the so-called “the international logistics right" or "the right of international logistics systems”. International practice is on the way of the development of legal regulation of individual logistics operations, but not of the logistics in general.
Many of the logistics spheres are not regulated by international law even on that level. Moreover, a large number of logistics operations is not regulated, even at the level of national law. Management of the goods distribution process, from the legal point of view, is one of the most “non-image” fields of economic activities.
There are adopted many international agreements in the field of international goods distribution (especially in the field of transport and customs regulation). However, majority of these agreements have hardly representative character (many of them, which are adopted quite a long time ago, still await either entry into force, because they do not have the required number of ratifications).
International trade interests, the process of international division of labor, and the internationalization of economic life have created a special tool of legal regulation – "Lex mercatoria" (international commercial law).
This paper provides an overview and an analytical overview of the current standards in Bulgaria and the European Union related to ergonomic of logistic equipment. The point is to show the impact of standards on ergonomics, efficiency and competitiveness of logistics equipment, and to specify the types of ergonomic parameters. All this determines the decision area at the design stage of the logistics process and equipment and serves as a basis for the development of a computer system for automated and modular design. The availability of this information allows to achieve and a higher level of operating standards applied ergonomics.
ASPECTS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES OF ENTERPRISES. APPLICATION OF FAULT TREE ANALYSIS (FTA)
Risk management in logistics enterprises is one of the important topics in the management of supply. In today’s global reality characterized by constant and rapid changes that make high degree of uncertainty and risk, make the logistics activity critical.
The purpose of this article is to present the main aspects of risk management including the construction of the risk profile in logistics activity in enterprises and demonstrate the applicability of the FTA, which was developed conditional example. This will considerably facilitate efforts directed at risk management in logistics activity in enterprises.
The supply logistics is one of the important activities in the organization. The paper examines an approach for improvement of the supply logistics. The approach consists of three phases. The first phase includes the necessary preparatory activities as determination of supply logistics processes, development of a goals and indicators system of supply logistics, identification of problems in logistics processes and development of the interactions between supply processes, logistic problems and logistic goals. The second phase involves carrying out a preliminary analysis of the supply based on the collected information and proposing activities for improving logistics performance. The third phase involves further analysis of the results of the application of activities for the improvement of logistics activities based on an as-sessment of the achievement of logistics objectives. Approbation of the approach in an enterprise that manufactures a wide range of products for final consumption is presented and possibilities for improvement of supply logistics are discussed.
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The article examines the current state and investment of supplying the agriculture with the main types of agricultural machinery. The availability and capacity of combine harvesters and tractors of all brands at agricultural enterprises and households has been analyzed. The issues of agricultural machinery renovation, including the expense of imports, are considered. In order to justify the most effective external funding the investments in agricultural machinery, a comparative analysis of financial leasing conditions and bank lending for purchasing a new tractor and a combine harvester. The prospects for further research have identified the justification for the rational composition and structure of the material and technical basis for the intensification of agriculture in the region.