Agricultural labor is physically demanding, tedious and often carried out in unfavorable conditions, making it suitable for robotization. Due to climate change and the swift increase of the human populace on Earth, the hunger is becoming increasingly an issue (currently, around 2 billion people suffer from malnourishment). With the aim of maximal efficiency of the production of plant food, an accelerated introduction of robotics in the field of agriculture is required (Agriculture 4.0).
Machines. Technologies. Materials.
Vol. 13 (2019), Issue 12
Table of Contents
In this paper, we design and simulate a 20 kW solar on grid power charging unit for electric vehicles at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University (AHU)/Maan-Jordan by using a Bluesol 3.0, Sketch Up 2018 software.
Two scenarios are considered; one where number of vehicles is five in the interval (8 am – 12 pm) & five vehicles in the interval (12 pm – 4 pm) and time of charge half of battery capacity four hours and the second scenarios where number of vehicles is eight in the interval (8 am – 12 pm) & eight vehicles in the interval (12 pm – 4 pm) and time of charge half of battery capacity four hours. We conclude that the system is efficient and very useful to the electric vehicles users in the university. In addition, the system is reducing the CO2 emissions annually from generating power by 28.4 tons of CO2.
ESTIMATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DC MOTOR COUPLED WITH A REACTION WHEEL BASED ON THE GENETIC ALGORITHMpg(s) 532-534
In this paper, it was proposed the experimental identification of the mathematical model of the DC motor, coupled with a reaction wheel. It was proposed to approximate the experimental curve with the mathematical model of order 2 inertia, identified by Genetic Algorithm. To estimate the mathematical model of the control object it was proposed to use the Genetic Algorithm method, the results obtained were compared with the Strejc methods and the results obtained using the Process Models module from System Identification Toolbox from MATLAB.
Interoperability for newly adopted countries in the EU is key to trains safety. Calculating the braking force used by the Leaflet 544-1 of the UIC Leaflet  brake elements is important for safety when running trains in the braking mode.
The researching of the facts shows that Regulation 58  is harmonized with the contents of UIC Leaflet 544-1 and EU Regulation No 1302/2014 . The test is to be used for the interoperability of the technical infrastructure in connection with Commission Regulation (EU) No 1299/2014 of 18 November 2014  on technical specifications for interoperability with respect to the infrastructure subsystem of the railway system in the Union concerned.
When designing the rail lines used braking calculation, made by easy way remain based on the friction of the pads on the wheel surface, but it is not related to the examples in the UIC Leaflet 544-1 .
In this paper the basic requirements for the modern machine tools with digital program control are formulated. The main directions of modernization of a class of machine tools are shown. The practical applications of the modernized machines are presented with the machining of parts with complex geometric shapes in different mechanical operations. The research held as well as the results obtained can be used in the practical study of machine tools with digital program control.
The strategic initiative Industry 4.0 implies integration of Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS), Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, leading to what is called “smart factory”. The lack of theoretical foundation and methodologies for development of CPPS creates barriers that may hamper the adoption, commercialization, and market success of the new CPPS applications. Standardization and digitalization are at the heart of the methodologies for developing intelligent cyber-physical production systems. OPC UA is the only recommended communication standard within the RAMI reference architecture. Here comes the main purpose of the paper to analyze OPC UA in respect to the information model creation and measures to ensure security of applications. An important place in the paper is devoted to the specification of standardized information models of other organizations, such as those of the ISA-95 (IEC-62264).
REGULARITIES OF INFLUENCE OF ELECTRON-BEAM TECHNOLOGY ON TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICESpg(s) 546-549
Based on the electron-beam technology we suggest the method that increases accuracy and extends the ranges of optoelectronic device measurement, and also increases the probability of their trouble-free operation under conditions of external thermal and mechanical actions. The method is based on the developed experimentally-statistical models to determine the complex influence of parameters of the electron beam on the physical-mechanical properties and optical characteristics in the surface layers of optical elements. at At the stage of device manufacturing this method allows forming a database of the superior physical and mechanical properties and the optical characteristics in the surface layers of optical elements depending on the electron beam parameters, by choosing the optimal regimes of their electron-beam processing, that allow maximizing the metrological characteristics of the devices.
INVESTIGATION OF THE DESIGN OF PLANT SEDIMENT MICROBIAL FUEL CELL ON THE ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS AND THE WATER TREATMENT EFFECT FROM PETROLEUM PRODUCTSpg(s) 550-553
Most applications of constructed wetlands (CW) have been designed to treat municipal or domestic wastewater but at present, constructed wetlands are successfully applied to many types of wastewater. The criteria for CW design and operation include site selection, plant selection, substrate selection, wastewater type, plant material selection, hydraulic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, water depth, operation mode and maintenance procedures. Integration of plant sediment microbial fuel cells (PSMFC) into them allows water treatment and parallel energy production. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of design of PSMFCs and various operation modes on electrical parameters and water treatment effect from petroleum products. The best results were achieved with downstream water flow, substrate – mixture of sediment and peat in a ratio of 3:1, use of stainless steel electrodes and the absence of a separator between aerobic and anaerobic areas. With this design and operating mode was achieved maximum power density of 10,40 mW/m2 and water purification of petroleum products of over 99% in CW with integrated PSMFC
PREPARATION OF NANO-LAMINATED STRUCTURES IN TITANIUM ALLOY WITH BLENDED ELEMENTAL POWDER METALLURGY METHODpg(s) 554-557
Titanium Ti-6-4 alloy coated with Ni-base material was obtained via Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy approach by sintering a mixture of laminated powders. Microstructure and phase composition of obtained laminated material were studied, and formation of Ti2Ni phase and multicomponent phase (Ti, Ni, Al, V, C) with E93 crystal cell of space group 227: Fd-3m was established. The intermetallic melt deeply permeated into the Ti-6-4 material at sintering temperature (1250°C) higher than Ti2Ni melting point (942°C), and a dense gradient structure formed. The microstructure, phase composition and properties of obtained gradient material are discussed in detail.
Based on the finite element method, the Stefan-Schwartz problem in micron size is solved in the estimation of contact heat exchange in the foundry. The dimensions of the contact spots are minimal, but using a good computing network it has proved possible to consider contact heat transfer processes. A temperature field in the area of complex geometry of the contact surface was obtained. A casting / mold temperature jump with perfect contact was also obtained.
The protective coatings of Al2O3 and AlN on iodide titanium in initial state and after annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the coatings protect titanium from the interaction with hydrogen at a pressure of 0.6 MPa up to 650 °C. It was shown that at 700 °C and pressure 0.6 MPa cracking of the protective coatings occurred, and the process of active absorption of hydrogen started.
This report examines the characteristics of powerful supercapacitors, which are used in electric vehicles to perform their driving dynamics, as well as to power starter motors of powerful internal combustion engines in large trucks, military vehicles and more. Main requirement for supercapacitors is tobe able to deliver a large amount of electricity for about ten seconds, and for very powerful motors (over 100 kW) – for up to 15 seconds. Various technological methods have been reported for supercapacitorsproduction, including the onedeveloped by the current authors, which is based on a ceramic dielectric with a high relative dielectric constant.
Bulgaria has a variety of deposits (mainly in northeastern Bulgaria) of sedimentary rocks (marls) suitable for the development of compounding formulations and technology for the production of stone products. On the basis of some of these sedimentary rocks (marls), experimental technologies for innovative formulations with modifiers for usable petrurgical materials are developed and tested. The first prototypes of ballistic protection products are obtained, with physic-mechanical properties better than those when only natural sedimentary rock is used, and lighter and cheaper than in the case of corundum and silicon carbide.
The properties of these materials allow for certain alternative applications such as the ballistic protection of ground-based mobile and stationary objects. They also make possible the production of quality articles with protective properties against high-speed kinetic effects, but at significantly lower cost than when traditional materials are used.