• BUSINESS & “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Solar Energy an Instrument for Reducing High Electricity Prices in Industry Sector in Albania

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 142-146

    The research focus addresses to installation of PV modules in industry sector in Albania. Due to energy crises, the prices are going higher and with the new regulations that are defined by Albanian government, businesses that are connected to 20kV, 10kV, 6kV transmission lines must secure the energy supply by their selves in open market, since a part of price was covered by government, now companies are facing higher prices. The new price is expected to increase more than 70%, up to 0.16 €/kWh from 0.092 €/kWh. Also, companies that will be in the open market will face price volatilities, hence with the installation of PV modules, reduction of electricity price is possible, since the LCOE (levelized cost of electricity) for the PV in Albania, including 20% VAT tax, is calculated around 0.035 €/kWh. To calculate the effect in electricity price a simulation using RETScreen Expert is performed. The simulations are made for a company connected to a 20kV electricity transmission line where an on-grid PV system 217.28 kW power installed is integrated on the roof. The PV modules covers 52.4% of the company electricity demand, by generating 286055 kWh electricity yearly from which 68% of electricity generated from PV is consumed by the company and 32% is exported to grid because company works 8 h/day and there is not an electricity storage system installed. With the price increment from 0.092 €/kWh to 0.16 €/kWh, the total earnings from PV installed system will be increased by an average 65.3% and if the electricity price in the open market is doubled the total earnings will be increased by an average 85.3%.

  • DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    An experimental study on energy generation from photovoltaic-thermal hybrid systems

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 5 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 76-78

    Solar energy is one of the leading renewable energy sources because of its great potential, affordability of the individual system prices, zero emission and no noise emission. 21st century will be based on renewable energy sources, with strict environmental measures, primary energy use will mainly consist of a combination of (different) clean energy sources among which solar energy will play a leading role. Two technologies for harnessing the energy of the sun are photovoltaic cells (PV) and solar collectors. Photovoltaic cells (PV) exploit the visible part of the spectrum while solar collectors use the infrared part. Combining these two technologies into one provides a system that produces electricity and heat at the same time using all parts of the solar spectrum. These systems are known as photovoltaic thermal systems or PV/T. This paper presents the description of these systems and methods of application. Among this, this paper gives description of experimental PV/T installation at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Banja Luka.

  • MACHINES

    DESIGN OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES CHARGING UNIT

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 13 (2019), Issue 12, pg(s) 522-531

    In this paper, we design and simulate a 20 kW solar on grid power charging unit for electric vehicles at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University (AHU)/Maan-Jordan by using a Bluesol 3.0, Sketch Up 2018 software.
    Two scenarios are considered; one where number of vehicles is five in the interval (8 am – 12 pm) & five vehicles in the interval (12 pm – 4 pm) and time of charge half of battery capacity four hours and the second scenarios where number of vehicles is eight in the interval (8 am – 12 pm) & eight vehicles in the interval (12 pm – 4 pm) and time of charge half of battery capacity four hours. We conclude that the system is efficient and very useful to the electric vehicles users in the university. In addition, the system is reducing the CO2 emissions annually from generating power by 28.4 tons of CO2.